Project Management Processes
Project Life Cycle
- A process is a set of interrelated actions and activities performed to achieve a pre-specified product, result, or service
- Each process is characterized by its inputs, the tools and techniques that
- can be applied, and the resulting outputs
- In order for a project to be successful, the project team must:
- Select appropriate processes required to meet the project objectives;
- Use a defined approach that can be adopted to meet requirements;
- Comply with requirements to meet stakeholder needs and expectations;
- Establish and maintain appropriate communication & engagement with stockholders;
- Balance the competing constraints.
- The project processes are performed by the project team and generally fall into one of two major categories:
- Project management processes ensure the effective flow of the project throughout its existence.
- Product-oriented processes specify and create the project’s product.
- Initiating process group: recognising a project or phase should begin (authorising the project or phase)
- Planning process group: devising and maintaining a workable plan
- Executing process group: coordinating resources to execute the plan
- Monitoring & Controlling process group: ensuring project objectives are met; monitoring, correcting and measuring progress
- Closing process group: formalised acceptance
- Common Project Management Processes Interactions:
- Monitoring & Controlling Process Group interacts with the other Process Groups
- Project Management Process Groups are linked by the outputs that are produced
- The Process groups are overlapping activities that occur throughout the project
- The output of one process generally becomes an input to another process or is a deliverable of the project, subproject or phase
- Deliverables of subproject or project level may be called incremental deliverables
- The Planning Process Group provides the Executing Process Group with project management plan and project documents
- Project management plan and project documents always revisited and updated
Initiating Process Group
- Defines and authorises the project.
- Are often done external to the project’s scope of control.
- Facilitate formal authorisation to start a new project.
- Project manager assigned
- Funding and approval happens external to project boundaries
- Many large or complex projects are divided into phases, and repeating it for each subsequent phases.
Planning Process Group
- Defines and refines the objectives, and plan the course of action required to attain the objective and scope that the project was undertaken to address.
- Develops project management plan and also refines project scope, project cost and schedule.
- It is updated and refined throughout execution process group by rolling wave planning.
- All necessary stakeholders are involved in this process.
Execution Process Group
- Majority of the project budget will be spent in performing Executing Process Group.
- Integrates people and other resources to carry out the project management plan.
- During the project execution, results may require planning updates and rebaselining
Monitoring & Controlling Process Group
Closing Process Group
- The main benefit of M&E Process Groups is that the project performance is measured and analyzed at regular intervals.
- Monitoring the ongoing project activities against the project management plan and the project performance measurement baseline
- Influencing the factors that could circumvent change control or configuration management so only approved changes are implemented.
- Controlling changes and recommending corrective or preventing action in anticipation of possible problems.
- M&E Process Group not only monitors and controls the work being done within a Process Group, but also monitors and controls the entire project effort.
Closing Process Group
- Formalizes acceptance of the project or phase deliverable.
- Obtain acceptance by the customer or sponsor to formally close the project or the phase
- Conduct post-project or phase-end review
- Record impacts of tailoring to any process
- Document lessons learned
- Apply appropriate updates to organisational process assets.
- Achieve all relevant project documents in the PMIS to be used as historical data
- Close out all procurement activities
- Perform team members’ assessments
- Release project resources
- The project data are continuously collected and analysed during the dynamic context of the project execution. The project team should use appropriate terminologies. Such as:
- Work performance data: the row observations and measurements identified during activities performed to carry out the project work.(Ex: reported present of work physically completed, quality and technical performance measures, start and finish date of scheduled activities, number of defects, actual cost, actual duration, etc..)
- Work performance information: the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context and integrated based on relationships across areas.(ex: status of deliverables,implementation status for change requests, and furcated estimates to complete).
- Work performance reports: the physical or electronic representation of work performance information is compiled in project documents,intended to raise issues or generate decisions (ex: status reports,memos, justifications, information notes, etc…)